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  Plagiarism -
citation & referencing
     
  Citation is mentioning source of information in text, i.e. embedding source of information in the body of your text. By doing this, you acknowledge the source of your work by including Surname of the author/ editor and year of publication.
   
 

In case of 1 author – Surname of author, Year

   
  In case of 2 authors – Surname of first author and Surname of second author, Year
   
  In case of 3 authors – Surname of first author, Surname of second author & , Surname of third author, Year
   
  In case of 4 or more authors – Surname of first author et al, Year
   
  Citing a direct quotation – Surname of author(s), year; “sentence quoted should be placed in double inverted comas to indicate quoting in direct speech”, (page number)
   
  Referencing, a key component of ethical academic practice, is compiling a list of all sources of information in your own work at the end of your text. It showcases to the reader that your work is a result of knowledge gained from accessing and reading appropriate academic content. You stand to gain credit for the effort you have put in researching your topic and information you would have gained for such research.
   
  Good and quality referencing will fetch you better scores because best-practices are normally rewarded by examiners and professors.
   
  Referencing is to eliminate any ambiguity in indicating the source of information should provide complete information of source by including the following:
   
  1) When referencing a printed book –
  Surname of the author/ editor, First Name of the author/editor*, (Year of Publication), Title of the chapter in italics, Title of the book, Page Number, Edition Number if not first edition, Place of Publication, Name of Publisher
   
  2) When referencing an online or electronic book –
  Surname of author/ editor, First Name of author/ editor, (Year of Publication), Title of publication in italics, Edition Number of not first edition, [Online], Place of Publication, Name of Publisher, Available from : http://www.name of website [Accessed on: date of access]
   
  3) When referencing a printed journal –
  Surname of author, Name of author, (Year of Publication), Title of Journal Article, Journal Title in italics, Volume Number, Issue Number, mention page number of the article without using p or pp before page numbers.
   
  4) When referencing an online or electronic journal –
  Surname of author, Name of author, (Year of Publication), Title of Journal Article, Journal Title in italics, [Online], Volume Number, Issue Number, mention page number of the article without using p or pp before page numbers**, Available from URL or DOI*** [Accessed on: Date of access]
   
  * In case of an editor, use (ed.) after the name of the editor.
  ** Online journals may not have page numbers,
  *** Digital Object Identifier provided by publishers so that the article can always be found online
   
  For in-depth understanding of the Harvard Style, please visit the source of this information:
  https://workspace.imperial.ac.uk/library/Public/Harvard_referencing.pdf
  The key is to start early instead of waiting till the last hour. Research takes time. Good thesis or project demands adequate literature search and reading. Referring to books, reading multiple books, taking notes, compiling notes together, understanding and summarizing notes, evaluating your ideas, seeking advice, consulting peers and group members, proof reading etc., are all time consuming. While taking notes, do not forget to cite sources because going back later in search of details for citation could be a herculean task. Start working on your project or thesis early to give yourself adequate time to complete your assignment successfully and score high.
   
  Remember, there is no short cut to success. All the best!
   
   
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