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  So what is plagiarism?
     
  So what is plagiarism?
  Plagiarism is considered as an academic misconduct.
   
  IEEE defines plagiarism as “the reuse of someone else's prior ideas, processes, results, or words without explicitly acknowledging the original author and source.
   
  According to Duke University, plagiarism occurs when a student, with intent to deceive or with reckless disregard for proper scholarly procedures, presents any information, ideas or phrasing of another as if they were his/her own and/or does not give appropriate credit to the original source.
   
  According to The University of Melbourne, “Plagiarism is the act of representing as one's own original work the creative works of another, without appropriate acknowledgment of the author or source.
   
  University of North Carolina defines plagiarism as “the deliberate or reckless representation of another’s words, thoughts, or ideas as one’s own without attribution in connection with submission of academic work, whether graded or otherwise.
   
  The University of Melbourne sets the following as examples of plagiarism:
 
Copying directly (or allowing to be copied) paragraphs, sentences, a single sentence or significant parts of a sentence. An end reference without quotation marks around the copied text may also constitute plagiarism;
Copying ideas, concepts, research results, statistical tables, computer programs, designs, images, sounds or text or any combination of these
Paraphrasing of another's work closely, with minor changes but with the essential meaning, form and/or progression of ideas maintained
Relying on a specific idea or interpretation that is not one's own without identifying whose idea or interpretation it is
Cutting or pasting statements from multiple sources or piecing together work of others and representing them as original work
Presenting as independent, work done in collaboration with other people (eg, another student, a tutor)
Submitting, as one's own, all or part of another student's original work
Preparing an original and correctly referenced assignment and submitting part or all of the assignment twice for separate subjects or marks
Cheating in an exam, either by copying from other students or by using unauthorised notes or aids
   
  Duke University adds, plagiarism charges can be brought against a student for the following offenses:
 
Copying, quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing from any source without adequate documentation
Purchasing a pre-written paper (either by mail or electronically)
Letting someone else write a paper for you
Paying someone else to write a paper for you
Submitting as your own someone else's unpublished work, either with or without permission
   
  How serious is plagiarism? What are the consequences of plagiarism?
  Plagiarism is a growing concern and can have disastrous consequences. Since it is considered as a form of cheating, students who are found to have plagiarized could face course failure, suspension or even dismissal from the University. When you represent the thoughts, research, writings, etc, of other people as your own without adequately crediting the source, you are guilty of intellectual fraud which is unacceptable in the academic world. Plagiarism is more or less considered as an academic crime.
   
  According to IEEE, plagiarism in any form is unacceptable and is considered a serious breach of professional conduct, with potentially severe ethical and legal consequences.
   
  How to avoid plagiarism?
  It is a matter of fact that knowledge build upon knowledge. Most of the time we generate our own ideas by building on experiments, study, ideas and experiences of others
   
  When you submit an academic assignment, it is imperative to distinguish between the source or building blocks on which your ideas are based, and the conclusion you have drawn or your perspectives
   
  Paraphrasing and proper citation or referencing are keys to avoid plagiarism. It not only acknowledges the source of information but also indicates the range and depth of your research.
   
  Most Universities prefer Harvard Style of Referencing. However you are suggested to consult your school or lecturer to confirm their preferred referencing style. Other popular styles of referencing are MLA (Modern Language Association), APA (American Psychological Association) and CSE (Council of Science Editors).
   
  Explained here is the Harvard Style of Referencing, the most widely accepted style of referencing:
   
   
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